Tag Archive: industry

Ball Valve

Historically, the most used type of pipe fittings in our country has been and remains the valve. They are widely used in virtually every technology and transportation pipelines with diameters from 15 to 2000 mm. In systems of housing and communal services, gas and water supply, pipelines, and many others. As early as 1862 in Germany was awarded a patent on the wedge bolt, and in 1886 Joseph Hopkinson suggested that parallel valve, which was carried out sealing pressure on the disc – the technical solution, which is used today. Cranes with ball caps – a relatively new type of valves – were first used in fuel systems of aircraft during the Second World War. In the postwar years, their design improved. During the last 40 years there are many different types of cranes. Incyte usually is spot on. New projects have improved the use of ball valves in virtually all industries.

In recent years, the trend of displacement of the traditional wedge gate valve ball valves. There are several disadvantages of this type of pipeline valves, which are manifested in operation: The need for an annual audit by packing seals and O-rings, cleaning discs; complexity of the emergency line shutdown in an emergency; poor internal (to the gate) and external (shell – cover) tightness inadequate term trouble-free operation big dimensions and weight frequent failure due to a fall or broken bolts cheeks. In addition, as a shut-off valves are used often use cast iron gate valve (guided by the relatively low price of these products). It is often overlooked that the valves of Iron has several important limitations in operating conditions: 1. gas pipeline fuel gas and mazut line with Av = 50 mm. and more 2. on pipelines and water vapor from DN 50 mm.

and more at the working temperature> 120 C; 3. from atmospheric deaerator to the suction pipe to the feed pumps, 4. on the pipelines of all diameters at the working temperature> 120 C, if the fixture has an electric drive. In addition, fittings, made of cast iron seogo grade no lower than SCH18 can not be applied to pipelines with operating pressures greater than 0.6 MPa. For valves operating at low ambient temperatures, the following Limitations: fittings made of cast iron SCH18 – not below -15 C; fittings of ductile iron KCH30 – not below -30 C; fittings of ductile iron SCH18 – not below -30 C.

Technology Overview

precipitators, scrubbers, dust collectors (cyclones), PDP type (sequential separation of flows) are used for dry cleaning of gases (air) from non-explosive fine dust Technology Overview: Suspended particles are separated from the gas stream by centrifugal and inertial forces. The dusty gas stream passes through the tangential inlet into the casing, where the expense of sending consistent divided into separate streams, with further centrifugal separation of dust. Coarse dust settles on the walls of the rails and the body and falls into a hopper for collecting dust and dust collector. Gases with fine particles, divided into separate streams are fed to the blade outlet, where the reverse direction by 180 . At this point, fine dust falls to the bottom of the outlet and into a hopper for collecting dust and dust collector. The purified gases escape from precipitator outlet channel of the Inland through the outlet nozzle scrubbers hollow SPF: chemical absorbers for the purification of gases from harmful substances and dust with simultaneous mechanical treatment of suspended particle diameter larger than 10 microns for security with GOST 12.2.007-75 Technology Overview: In the bowl of water is poured lye and mix until there is a 10% solution. Cleaned gases from the inlet to come dymootrazhatel then irrigated dispersible alkali solution, which cools the gases and purifying them from hazardous substances at the same time contributing to their removal of suspended particles. At the top of the scrubber saturated moisture gas through droplet separator to separate gas and water fraction in many papers, covering the "garbage problem," began to sound more and more arguments of those who finally realized that the thermal destruction of waste (Burning) is a real alternative to disposal of the ecology and economy. However, until now, most experts believe that the panacea for all ills is a separate collection and recycling.

Moulding Plastics – Technology Description

Moulding Plastics – a set of cyclical processes, where the material acquires the configuration of the inner mold and zatverdvaet, ensuring receipt of plastics with given voystvami. The essence of the process is that the molten plastic being plastic, which is in screw machine moves under pressure through the piston channels gating, filling the cavity with high-speed mold and then cools to form the casting. Injection molded plastic is more than a third of the total piece of polymeric materials, and more than half of the range of equipment used in processing of polymers designed for injection molding pressure. Casting plastic under pressure is the most productive way of manufacturing thin-walled parts with complex shapes from thermoplastic, so ideally suited to mass production, an important requirement which is an exact match sizes. technology investor has much experience in this field. With mass production must take into account the ability to automate processes, as well as take into account nalichieoborudovaniya, staff qualifications etc. Casting plastic of the highest quality possible, thanks to the one used the most modern equipment, which embodies the most advanced ideas of experts, as well as the only raw materials of acceptable quality. This gives basis with full responsibility that the work is for those who cherish quality. Of casting is always preceded by the design phase of product design and the forming tools (molds), and also worked through the design details on the technology of plastic injection molds izgotovleniya.Konstruktsiya should have radii of casting, casting biases, the same wall thickness. Dimensional accuracy and surface roughness details shall be appropriate for casting.

The Effect

A combination of two different binders and the appearance of sooty thermal product of one of them has the effect of scoring and embrittlement of the film of liquid glass, which allows to relate obtained mixture as legkovybivaemyh along with mixtures on synthetic resins. A series of studies with one of the possible compositions of liquid-polystyrene molding sand: silica sand 95% (by weight, and here etc.); waterglass 3% polymer polystyrene 2% (as 40% solution of polystyrene waste in gum turpentine). The strength of this mixture on the compression on a wet after blowing CO2 for 1 min. exceeds the capabilities of its determination to the standard lever-operated device that is much higher than 1.25 kgf/cm2, and the strength of the mixture on a wet tensile is equal to 0.04 MPa. As the characteristics of these mixtures with vybivaemosti zhidkostekolno-polymer binder was adopted by the strength of samples in the gap, depending on the temperature of the drying process and taking into account the CO2 or CO2 without treatment.

Option purge the CO2 provides for fast-curing mixture, and this is its main advantage. It should be However, while recognizing the regularities of physical and chemical hardening of the binder, that the strength of this mixture is explained by gluing granular silica gel. But, according to AM Ribbon 'strength bonding the filler grains of sodium silicate glassy film is many times higher than the bond strength of silicic acid gel. " It is therefore advisable in some cases, casting practices, especially in the individual manufacture, use this opportunity serious hardening of the mixture by drying it, including after the purge of CO2.


Experts give 50 percent of the success of this project. And if it will work, I could produce the same amount of electricity as a small nuclear power plant. Operating principle geothermal power, Iceland makes geothermal energy into electricity in two ways: from the well Steaming temperature 600 F, which is fed directly to the turbine, and a more efficient method, which gives supercritical water from deep wells, making steam that drives a turbine. The natural supply of supercritical water and turning it into electricity, would be like to transition from diesel to jet fuel. To assess the benefits available to natural supercritical water, we say that the majority of power plants and nuclear power plants also produce supercritical water before generate electricity. Power stations produce thermal energy produced by burning coal or radioactive decay of isotopes to the water in a sealed tank turned into a supercritical state.

The process allows water maintain high-energy intermolecular bonds in the liquid state until it flows through the pipes, with almost zero resistance, as a gas. Two and a half miles of underground water heated by magma to 1100 . At this temperature, it usually exist as pairs, but a lot of pressure keeps it liquid. And if the water is released to the surface in the supercritical state will retain almost all its energy. But engineers will have to redesign the existing heat exchangers, so that they can operate with high temperatures and resisted corrosion. Then the power plant running on natural supercritical water could produce up to 500 b megawatts of electricity, along with a small nuclear reactor or power plant at half capacity. But unlike them, geothermal power plants using renewable and virtually no comprehensive source of energy, with zero emissions. Prospects for development of geothermal energy in Iceland now uses its geothermal potential is only 20 percent of the total possible.

If they had exploited all the resources of the island only in the usual way, we could produce 20 gigawatts of electricity per hour per year – as three nuclear reactors. Iceland uses geothermal energy to start from the beginning of the XX century. On the island there are five district heating geothermal power plants with total power capacity of 420 MW, which produce 26.5% of all electricity in the country, and 90 percent of their heating and hot water is heated by geothermal energy. Possible But the problems of such a large project, there are serious problems and risks. At worst, it can release and leakage of water under high pressure, then unrestrained fluid flow will sweep the whole rig, which happened to One of Iceland's projects in 1999, then, because of the failure of valve used to isolate the source in case of ejection, there was an explosion, which left behind a crater 30 meters wide. It is also possible that deep-water containing hydrochloric acid and the liquid for several hours without any problems melt steel. Also, the drill may stumble directly to the magma, or skip supercritical water, then you have to leave this area and drill elsewhere. Iceland established its own project using geothermal energy, which may be an example for countries with similar terrain. Japan and Italy are open about their potential supercritical water, but Iceland is the first country has made a big step in the use of geothermal energy. News of science and technology

Laying Laminate Flooring

Scheme of instruction installation of the laminate flooring. When laying laminate flooring on concrete base must first be carefully lay plastic sheeting to provide a vapor barrier on the residual moisture seals. After that stretches Acoustic underlay (if there is no sound proofing on the panels), which made laying laminate flooring. When installing linoleum on the wooden base or dry vapor barrier is required. In as sound-absorbing substrate under the laminate can be used extruded polystyrene thickness of 2-3 mm or natural cork. Laying laminate begins with the formation of the first row of the two boards, with establish special wedges to ensure that the gap between the laminate and the wall from 7 to 15 mm. These clearances are necessary so that after laying laminate had the opportunity to freely expand and contract depending of type of temperature and humidity (operating floor). If your laminate 'stood up', then the chances are that you have violated this rule.

Laminate flooring is laid over the lock snaps into place to facilitate panels. After forming the first row of panels to begin laying the second row. Among the specialists decided to lay the laminate boards in half, ie top view should look like masonry walls in a brick floor, while the installation instructions may be offset plates relative to each other in at least 20 cm The fact that the laying of a 'floor boards' enables you to evenly distribute the pressure between the panels with expansion and contraction of the laminate, and provides more headroom to eliminate possible errors. The panel is substituted for the second row the first row of panels at an angle of 20-30 degrees. Is inserted into the lock and latches. Pay attention – until the laminate snaps on the front (short) side, and just 'try on'. Further ongoing formation of the second series without mechanical (short side) lock by using the following panel.